中級單字的教材中,我們列出實用衍生字,強化單字學習的內涵,延伸單字的學習廣度。一般衍生字由字首與字尾來變化單字,本套教材的衍生字以字尾的變化為主。
字首幫助背更多的單字
一個英文單字,在單字前面加上字首(前綴),可以成為另一個意思不同的單字。懂得基本的字首意思,背單字更有效率,尤其結構過於相似的單字,常可以由字首判斷其不同之處。以下列出常見基本字首意思。
例如:un, im ()
Ex1: happy adj. 快樂的 > unhappy adj. 不快樂的
Ex2: possible adj. 可能的 > impossible adj. 不可能的
in- (內,入) instinct, inject, include
in- (不,非) incorrect, informal, incomplete
un- (不) unhappy, unlucky, unknown
un- (除去,取消) unlock, unload, unpack
re- (再,又) restore, recall, review, refresh
re- (回) reward, revenge, retreat, react, return
dis- (不,相反) dislike, dishonest, disorder, disagree
dis- (除去,取消) discourage, discover, disgrace
im- (不) impossible, impolite, immoral, immature
ex- (外,出) exit, export, extinct, exceed, explode
en- (致使) endanger, enable, enlarge
de- (向下) decline, depress, decay, deposit
pre- (之前) predict, preview, previous, predecessor
pro- (向前) progress, proceed, project, protrude
sub- (下,次要) subway, submarine, substitute, subtitle
fore- (前,先,預先) forehead, foresee, forecast
auto- (自己) autobiography, automatic, autograph
anti- (對抗,排斥) antibody, antitrust, antibiotics, antidepressant
trans- (越過,轉移) transparent, transmit, transplant, transport
常見名詞字尾變化
許多名詞的字尾,會有一定的格式。動詞或形容詞字尾出現名詞格式的拼法,可以判斷該單字做字尾變化成為名詞。
例如:govern v. 統治;管理
Ex1: 字尾加上 or > governor n. 州長
Ex2: 字尾加上 ment > government n. 政府
-er / performer, consumer, researcher
-or / editor, inspector, conqueror
-ce / fragrance, violence, essence
-cy / accuracy, privacy, efficiency
-ty / modesty, property, anxiety
-ity/ stability, authority, nationality
-ist / therapist, terrorist, novelist
-ism / tourism, communism, capitalism
-age / orphanage, shortage, wreckage
-tion / connection, devotion, instruction
-ness / consciousness, awareness, sickness
-sion / dimension, extension, comprehension
-ment / achievement, disappointment, enforcement
常見形容詞字尾變化
許多形容詞的字尾,會有一定的格式。動詞或名詞字尾出現形容詞格式的拼法,可以判斷該單字做字尾變化成為形容詞。
Ex1: 字尾 ful > harmful adj. 傷害的
Ex2: 字尾 less > sleepless adj. 失眠的
-al / informal, intentional, educational
-ful / harmful, doubtful, hopeful
-ent / proficient, efficient, consistent
-ous / superstitious, suspicious, disastrous
-tive / destructive, creative, objective
-able / profitable, affordable, unforgettable
-ical / chemical, psychological, technical
-less / wireless, sleepless, flavorless
 
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